第一篇 Why Buy Shade-Grown Coffee?
When people argue about whether coffee is good for health, they're usually thinking of the health of the coffee drinker. Is it food for your heart? Does it increase blood pressure? Does it help you concentrate? However, coffee affects the health of the human population in other ways, too.
Traditionally, coffee bushes were planted under the canopy(树冠)of taller indigenous(土生土长的)trees. However, more and more farmers in Latin America are deforesting the land to grow full-sun coffees. At first, this increases production because more coffee bushes can be planted if there aren’t any trees. With increased production come increased profits.
Unfortunately, deforesting for coffee production immediately decreases local-wildlife habitat. Native birds nest and hide from predators(捕食者)in the tall trees and migrating birds rest there.
Furthermore, in the long term, the full-sun method also damages the ecosystem because more chemical fertilizers and pesticides are needed to grow the coffee. The fertilizers and pesticides kill insects that eat coffee plant, but then the birds eat the poisoned insects and also die. The chemicals kill or sicken other animals as well, and can even enter the water that people will eventually drink.
Fortunately, farmers in Central and South America are beginning to grow more coffee bushes in the shade. We can support these farmers by buying coffee with such labels as "shade grown" and "bird friendly. Sure, these varieties might cost a little more. But we're paying for the health of the birds, the land, ourselves, and the planet. I think it's worth it.
31.What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Farmers are changing the way they grow coffee.
B. Coffee is becoming more expensive to produce.
C. Shade-grow coffee is more expensive than sun-grow coffee.
D. People should buy shade-grown coffee.
32.The function of the word "Traditionally" in Paragraph 2 is to show_____.
A. the positive effects of coffee.
B. a change of coffee growth.
C. something that is the most important.
D. how coffee production used to be.
33.What does increased production of full-sun coffee bring about?
A. More insects.
B. Better quality coffee.
C. Larger farms.
D. Higher profits.
34.How do farmers find more land for growing full-sun coffee?
A. They buy more land from other farmers.
B. They cut down trees.
C. They move to another country.
D. They turn grassland into farmland.
35.The full-sun method may affect the following EXCEPT_____ full sun
第二篇 Washoe Learned American Sign Language
An animal that influenced scientific thought has died. A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington. Washoe had become known in the scientific community and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language. She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language. Her skills also led to debate about primates and their ability to understand language.
Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966.In 1969, the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report. The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand about 250 words. For example, Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas. She also asked questions like," Who is coming to play?" Once the news about Washoe spread, many language scientists began studies of their own into this new and exciting area of research. The whole direction of primate research changed.
However, critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers. They said she had never developed true language skills. Even now, there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory, and perform the signs only for prizes. Yet Washoe's keepers disagree. Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardeners. He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg, Washington. There, Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees, which are still alive.
Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe Washoer provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees. Today, there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps. Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.
Debate continues about chimps understanding of human communication. Yet, one thing is sure-Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence
36. The Gardeners’ experiment with Washoe_____.
A. began in 1969
B. won a big prize
C. lasted three years
D. influenced primate research
37. The second paragraph mainly discusses_____.
A. a report about Washoe’s progress in learning sign language
B. the whole direction of primate research
C. new primate researches conducted by many language scientific
D. an experiment with Washoe at a research center in Africa.
38. The Gardeners’ experiment with Washoe was criticized because______.
A. just ask some simple question
B. only copy teachers’ sign language
C. only memorize about 250words
D. just repeat short sentences.
39. According to the passage, which of the following is true?
A. Roger Fouts taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees.
B. Washoe was the first chimp to use American Sign Language
C. A chimpanzee died of natural causes in Africa at a research center
D. Nowadays there are still lots of scientists experimenting with chimpanzees
40. We can draw a conclusion from the last paragraph that_____.
A. Whether chimps can learn a human language remains unanswered
B. primate have the ability to speak a language
C. animals cannot learn a human sign
D. Washoe is as intelligent as humans
第三篇 Moderate Earthquake Strikes England
A moderate earthquake struck parts of southeast England on 28 April 2007,toppling chimneys from houses and rousing residents from their beds. Several thousand people were left without power in Kent County. One woman suffered minor head and neck injuries.
"It felt as if the whole house was being slid across like a fun-fair ride," said the woman.
The British Geological Survey said the 4.3-magnitude quake struck at 8:19 a.m. and was centered under the English Channel, about 8.5 miles south of Dover and near the entrance to the Channel Tunnel.
Witnesses said cracks appeared in walls and chimneys collapsed across the county. Residents said the tremor had lasted for about 10 to 15 seconds.
"I was lying in bed and it felt as if someone had just got up from bed next to me." said Hendrick van Eck,27,of Canterbury about 60 miles southeast of London."I then heard the sound of cracking, and it was getting heavier and heavier. It felt as if someone was at the end of my bed hopping up and down."
There are thousands of moderate quakes on this scale around the world each year, but they are rare in Britain. The April 28 quake was the strongest in Britain since 2002 when a 4.8-magnitude quake struck the central England city of Birmingham.
The country's strongest earthquake took place in the North Sea in 1931,measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale. British Geological Survey scientist Roger Musson said the quake took place on 28 April in an area that had seen several of the biggest earthquakes ever to strike Britain, including one in 1580 that caused damage in London and was felt in France.Musson predicted that it was only a matter of time before another earthquake struck this part of England. However, people should not be scared too much by this prediction, Musson said, as the modern earthquake warning system of Britain should be able to detect a forthcoming quake and announce it several hours before it takes place. This would allow time for people to evacuate and reduce damage to the minimum.
41. The biggest earthquake took place in Britain_____.
A in 1931
B in 1580
C in 2002
D in 2007
42. The word “collapsed” in paragraph 4 most probably means_____.
A. Fell apart
B. Flew off
C. Shook up
D. Blew out
43. The phrase “this scale” in paragraph 6 refers to_____.
A. 4.8-magnitude quake
B. 4.3-magnitude quake
C. 5.8on the Richer scale
D 6.1on the Richer scale
44. The following statements are true Except____.
A. the quake caused a power failure in Kent Country
B. the tremor lasted for 10-15 seconds.
C. people in Canterbury felt strong quake
D. the quake was centered under the Channel Tunnel.
45. It can be learned from the last paragraph that____.
A. moderate earthquakes often strike London in the history
B. earthquake warming system of Britain can predict the forthcoming quake
C. another earthquake is predicted to occur in England
D. the French also felt the earthquake taking place on 28,April